Infectious Diseases Animations
Infectious Diseases: Animations (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
From the 2010 Holiday Lectures — Viral Outbreak: The Science of Emerging Disease
Although humans have long observed the devastating effects of infectious diseases, the microscope made it possible to see the pathogens. Today, the genomics revolution lets scientists "see" the microbial world in greater detail, leading to custom-designed drugs and therapies. Despite advances in science and medicine, infectious diseases will continue to threaten human health. Explore this exhibit to learn about the challenges posed by infectious diseases—and to "meet" scientists like Pasteur and Koch, whose insights have contributed to our understanding.
A multimedia presentation covering how antibiotics function to fight invaders. Five major sections with animations cover bacteria, antibiotic structure, pathways of attack, penicillin, and antibiotic resistance.
Bacterial Conjugation (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation.
Watch this Flash animation to see how bacteria share genes that encode resistance to antibiotics.
E. coli Infection Strategy (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
Watch this animation to see the molecular tricks that an infectious strain of Escherichia coli uses to infect your gut.
Intracellular Infection by Salmonella (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
In this animation, you can see how one S. typhimurium invades an epithelial cell of the intestinal tract, survives the intracellular defense mechanisms of the host cell, and multiplies.
Recombination of Viral Genome (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
When two different strains of influenza infect a single cell, their genetic material can mix freely, resulting in a new third strain of influenza.
Watch this Flash animation to see how viruses are studied in the lab.
Viral Lifecycle (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
Delivering a single virus to a cell allows the virus to infect the cell, replicate, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect many neighboring cells.
Watch this Flash animation to see how different viral strains can be generated by a process called subunit reassortment.
Emerging Infectious Diseases Animations (Rediscovering Biology)
Antigenic Shift: The influenza virus can mutate through antigenic shift, causing new outbreaks to occur in human populations. Bacterial Conjugation: Antibiotic resistance genes can be shared between bacteria through a sex pilus. Bacterial Transformation: Antibiotic resistance genes can be obtained by the uptake of free-floating DNA released from a bacterial cell that has died. Dispersal of Malaria and Chloroquine Resistance: Comparison of the distribution of the malaria parasite and chloroquine resistance around the world. When the maps are overlaid, it is shown that there is chloroquine resistance nearly everywhere the malaria parasite exists. Efflux Pump: An efflux pump is a mechanism used by bacteria to eject antibiotics before they can affect the cell. Four Gene DNA Vaccine: Creating a DNA vaccine for malaria will involve producing antigens from several stages of the parasite's life cycle. Influenza Infection: Description of how the influenza virus infects a cell and the role of hemagglutinin in the release of RNA from the viral core. Malarial Infection: Description of the malarial life cycle within the human body.
HIV and AIDS Animations (Rediscovering Biology)
Immune System Overview: An overview of the specific immune system. HIV Infection: A description of HIV structure and how it infects T cells. HIV Receptors: The two distinct co-receptors on the surface of T cells are CXCR4 and CCR5, both requiring CD4 for the entry of the HIV virus. CCR5 is the receptor used for entry in the asymptomatic phase; during the symptomatic phase the viruses can use the CXCR4 receptor. HIV DNA Vaccine: A brief description of how DNA might be used as a vaccine for HIV.