Genomics and Genetics Animations
Genomics and Chemical Genetics Animations (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
From the 2002 Holiday Lectures — Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules
DNA microarrays, or gene chips, are an important new technology for genomic research. Learn how researchers use computing to analyze and interpret the huge datasets generated by microarray experiments. Also featured on the HHMI DVD, Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules, available free from HHMI. Order DVDs here.
Cellular Screening (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
One technique for discovering small molecules of biological relevance is to expose cultured cells to a variety of small molecules and look for changes in the cells' appearance, behavior or other measurable qualities.
Chemspace (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
The hypothetical relationship of chemical space and biological space is plotted on a three-dimensional graph, giving a glimpse of the future direction of research at the intersections of various disciplines.
Diversity of Small Molecules (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
A molecular menagerie of small molecules is displayed, with two particular molecules singled out for attention: rapamycin and furrowstatin, which are discussed in the remainder of Dr. Schreiber's lectures on chemical genetics.
DOS Matrix (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
In diversity-oriented synthesis, many combinations of chemical building blocks undergo relatively few reaction steps to form a vast variety of different molecules. In this example, 45 x 45 x 45 combinations yield more than 88,000 novel molecules.
Furrowstatin (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
The small molecule 'furrowstatin' exemplifies the power of using small molecules to investigate life's processes. When applied to dividing cells, the furrowstatin halts cell division.
Gene Chip Manufacturing (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
Gene chips, also called DNA microarrays, have a broad range of applications in current research, including enabling researchers to measure the activity of thousands of genes simultaneously. Dr. Eric Lander describes the process used to manufacture gene chips.
Small molecules are chemicals that can interact with proteins to affect their functions. Learn about the structure and biological functions of various small molecules like sugar and caffeine. Also featured on the HHMI DVD, Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules. Available free from HHMI. Order DVDs here.
Molecular Screening (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
After a chemical biologist has made many novel small molecules by diversity-oriented synthesis, the next step is to find those that are useful. Molecules need to be "screened." Conceptually, screening is like using proteins as a custom filter to catch potentially useful small molecules.
Myosin II Mechanism (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
Myosin II is one of the molecules involved in furrow formation in dividing cells. This animation shows how the molecule operates, and how furrowstatin blocks the mechanism and halts division of a cell.
All living humans originated from populations of ancestors who migrated out of Africa less than 100,000 years ago. Learn how scientists have used genetic markers to trace the migration routes and origins of modern human populations. Also featured on the HHMI DVD, Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules. Available free from HHMI. Order DVDs here.
One of the most important molecules relating to cancer is called p53. It has been called the guardian of the genome. Learn about what p53 does, and how interfering with its function can lead to cancer. Also featured on the HHMI DVD, Learning from Patients: The Science of Medicine, available free from HHMI. Order DVDs here.
Rapamycin (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
Rapamycin is a small molecule originally isolated from nature. It has antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. It also allows two proteins which do not normally interact to bind together in the cell, which causes problems in the nutrient-sensing pathway.
Small-Molecule Microarrays (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)
To screen many small molecules at once, microarray technology is useful. Automated devices have made it possible for thousands of different small molecules to be printed as an array of spots on a glass slide. A single type of protein which has been tagged with a fluorescent marker can then be washed across the array. Any small molecule that binds to the protein can be detected by scanning for spots that are fluorescent.
The proteosome is a large molecular machine that plays an important role in recycling and regulating cellular proteins. Learn about the structure and function of this fascinating cellular machine. Also featured on the HHMI DVD, Learning from Patients: The Science of Medicine, available free from HHMI. Order DVDs here.
This animation illustrates how a small molecule binds to a protein. As a result of the binding, the protein alters its shape and becomes inactivated.
Learn about the different ways scientists are able to detect when genes are being expressed in various tissues. Also featured on the recently released HHMI DVD, Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads, available free from HHMI. Order DVDs here.
Genomics Animations (Rediscovering Biology)
BLAST Search: A depiction of what happens in a BLAST search in the GenBank database. Haplotypes: A brief description of the concept of a haplotype. Microarray Experiment: A depiction of a typical microarray experiment to discover which genes are expressed in a given sample. Open Reading Frame: A brief description of the concept of an open reading frame (ORF). Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs): An explanation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Theory of DNA Repair in Deinococcus: A depiction of the DNA repair process that Jonathon Eisen postulates might be happening in Deinococcus radiodurans after it is exposed to radiation.
Human Genome Project
Welcome to the newly updated Online Education Kit. The links below contain all sections inside the CD. You can even download the individual multimedia portions of the CD to your computer.
Human Genome Project by NHGRI